Tuesday, June 19, 2018

The Authority of Priests and Kings

The Priests
In ancient Israel, YHVH established an hierarchy of authoritative order.  I titled this “The Authority of Priests and Kings”, not “The Authority of Kings and Priests”, because initially Israel only had priests.  If Israel hadn’t lusted to be like her neighbors, that is all that would have been necessary, since YHVH Himself was her King. 

The priests and Levites were anointed into these positions by YHVH through the hands of Moses, subsequently Aaron, and then those he anointed.  YHVH established WHO would be the priests (Aaron, his sons, and in my opinion, those under the Nazarite vow – see here), WHO would assist the priests (the Levites), and WHO would participate in the communal aspects of the service (those of the assembly who were clean).  These divisions were expected to be respected and obeyed, otherwise people could fall sick such as Miriam becoming leprous in Miriam and Aaron’s words against Moses.  They could even die, such as Korach and his rebellion against the priesthood, or the fate of the people who would dare to ascend the mountain. 

This authority was not upheld or revoked conditional of the level of the priests’ righteousness.  Aaron was overseeing things when the golden calf incident occurred, but YHVH did not remove his priesthood.  People were still charged to proceed according to the established order.  In the days of Eli and his sons, even though the public was well aware of and oppressed by the abuse of authority of the priesthood, the rights and duties of the priesthood continued until YHVH Himself cleaned up the situation by killing Eli and his sons and establishing a new family line of the sons of Aaron in their stead.  Of course, that didn’t prevent corruption from taking root again.  Wickedness in the priesthood grew until YHVH revealed to Ezekiel that the elders of Israel were worshipping images of idols on the walls of the temple court, and the priests had turned their backs to the altar in the holy place so they could instead worship the sun.  The solution, though, was not for unauthorized people who thought they could do a better job to step in and create their own priesthood.  The solution was for YHVH to clean house by exiling Israel. 

When Israel returned, Ezra sent for the Levites and separated out the priests to reestablish the altar.  The priesthood continued, and once again it fell into corruption.  It was certainly wicked by the time Yeshua stepped into his ministry.  However, Yeshua and his family followed the established system when pilgrimaging for the feasts and when attending the synagogues.  And when He healed people, he sent them to show themselves to the priests, which was necessary according to the Torah.  The High Priest during Yeshua's earthly ministry even prophesied because of his office as High Priest, not because of his righteousness.  After Yeshua ascended, the twelve Apostles and Paul still continued to operate according to the authority of the established priesthood in sacrifices, vows, feasts, and synagogue attendance on the Sabbath.  The new believers did not stop attending Sabbath services in the synagogues to meet as believers; they gathered as believers at a different time and continued to meet in the synagogues according to the established order.

The King
When Israel grew discontent without a human king on the throne, YHVH gave her what she deserved.  Saul.  YHVH appointed and anointed Saul as king through an anointing by the hands of Samuel.  When Saul failed in his character, YHVH had Samuel anoint another man, David, as king.  However, Saul was still on the throne.  David recognized YHVH’s anointing on Saul, and he understood that YHVH put him there and YHVH would be the one to remove him.  David had the opportunity to kill the currently reigning king on multiple occasions but didn’t dare touch YHVH’s anointed.  This was prophetic of how Yeshua, Son of David, would be anointed as king while the reigning king continued to oppress the people and abuse his authority.  As an anointed king, Yeshua could have overthrown the system, but instead he submitted to it.  Unto death.  Had he divided the kingdom, as was done later, it would have only led to civil war.

YHVH’s people are always instructed to obey the ruling hierarchy of man that YHVH established, as long as the authority’s command does not violate YHVH’s law.  Peter exhorts us to “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto governors…” We are similarly told to submit wives to husbands, slaves to masters, younger to elder, etc. We don’t have to approve of their decisions, or like the one(s) in authority over us.  Our obedience does not depend on the righteousness of that person, either.  “Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers.  For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.  Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.”  No man holds any station without YHVH’s appointment.

There are times to disobey authority, such as the midwives rejecting Pharoah’s command to kill the infants, or the men of the exile refusing to bow to Nebuchadnezzar’s image of gold.  But even in these cases, aside from the single command that the authority gave against YHVH’s law, the people obeyed their authority in other issues.  What does this have to do with the Dead Sea Scrolls and its calendar?  Stay tuned to find out!

Saturday, October 14, 2017

1 Corinthians 11 and the Nazarite Vow

1Co 11:4  “Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.  5  But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven.  6  For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered.” (KJV)

This set of verses has been the focus of many heated debates among many sects of Christianity.  Some interpret that all women should be veiled in some way all the time.  Some restrict the covering to liturgical situations.  Some require the covering only for married women.  And some dismiss the veiling saying that it was a cultural situation of times long passed or some variant.  I’d like to propose yet another take.

Here is verse 6 again with its Strong’s numbers:
1Co 11:6  “For if the woman be not covered (G2619), let her also be shorn (G2751), but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn (G2751) or shaven (G3587), let her be covered (G2619).”  “Shorn” and “shaven” are only used sparsely in the New Testament:

Shorn – Strong’s number G2751
The word translated as “shorn” is used only two other times in the New Testament:  Acts 8:32, talking about a sheep before its “shearer” (G2751) and Acts 18:18: “And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn (G2751) his head in Cenchrea: for he had a vow.”

Shaven – Strong’s number G3587
In this case, other than 1 Corinthians 11:5 and 6, the word translated as “shaven” is used only one other time in the New Testament: Acts 21:24:  “Them take, and purify thyself with them, and be at charges with them, that they may shave (G3587) their heads: and all may know that those things, whereof they were informed concerning thee, are nothing; but that thou thyself also walkest orderly, and keepest the law.”

The vow that requires shaving is the Nazarite vow (Numbers Chapter 6).  Paul apparently had completed his days while in Cenchrea and shaved his head.  Later, when Paul arrived in Jerusalem, he was falsely accused of teaching against Torah, so he was advised to purify himself with the four men also under the vow, for them to also shave and bring the required offerings.

Both “shorn” and “shaven” in 1 Corinthians 11 are echoed in verses concerning the Nazarite vow.  The Septuagint use of shaven (G3587) is used throughout the Numbers 6 discussion of the Nazarite vow.  According to Torah, a woman could also make the Nazarite vow: Num 6:2  “Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When either man or woman shall separate themselves to vow a vow of a Nazarite, to separate themselves unto the YHVH...”  Perhaps 1 Corinthians 11 is ultimately discussing issues regarding those set apart under the Nazarite vow.

The scriptures give the requirements for becoming a Nazarite, but are less clear about the purpose of it, other than to “separate unto YHVH”.  However, by observing the requirements of abstaining from wine, grape products and fermented drink, having specifications about the hair, being prohibited from becoming defiled by a dead body, and being pronounced “holy unto YHVH”, the Nazarite appears suspiciously similar to a priest.  

Typically, only a descendant of Aaron could be a priest, but the entire nation was supposed to be a “kingdom of priests” and a “holy nation” (Exodus 19:6), regardless of tribe.  David, from the tribe of Judah, wore an ephod, specified to be worn by the high priest (Exodus 28:12).  David’s sons (possibly “children” inclusive of girls) were recorded as priests (2 Samuel 8:18).  One of his sons, Absalom, only polled his hair when it was too heavy, and at least once went to pay his vows (2 Samuel 15:7).  Ira, a Jairite, from the tribe of Manasseh, was also a priest (2 Samuel 20:26).  [You will have to look at the Hebrew or Strong’s number to find “priest” in 2 Samuel 8:18 and 15:7, because the translators were stumped by the genealogy and wrote “chief ruler(s)” instead.]  Yeshua is our high priest, yet of the tribe of Judah.  Previously I had concluded his priesthood being due to the order of Melchitzedek.  Maybe that is all it is; maybe there is more.  And maybe one can only have the title of Melchitzedek while under the Nazarite vow.

Samson and Samuel appear to have been lifelong Nazarites.  Samson was of the tribe of Dan (Judges 13:2).  However, Samuel seems to be from the tribe of Levi (1 Chronicles 6:33-38).  In addition, John the Baptist seemed to be a Nazarite, but also was of the tribe of Levi (Luke 1:5,15).  So, if the purpose of the Nazarite was to transform non-Levites into priests, why would Samuel and John the Baptist, descendants of Levi, need this?    Strong’s number H3548, the word used as “priest”, is clarified as “Aaron’s sons”, such as in Lev. 1:5 “And he shall kill the bullock before YHVH; and the priests (H3548), AARON’S SONS, shall bring the blood and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation” (see also Lev. 1:8, 11; Num. 3:3).

Priestly duties, mostly recorded in Leviticus, include ministering at the altar such as starting and tending the altar fire, arranging the order and placement of sacrifices, sprinkling the altar and people, receiving sacrifices into the tabernacle from the congregation, making anointing oils and incense, lighting and trimming the menorah, disassembling the tabernacle in the wilderness, and overseeing the purification from skin and discharge impurities.  Levitical duties, on the other hand, include transporting and erecting the tabernacle, ark, menorah, altar and table, maintaining the tabernacle vessels, buffering the people by surrounding the tabernacle, guarding the tabernacle gates, receiving the tithes, singing and playing music, and preparing the shewbread.

In Deuteronomy, there is a peculiar blend of Levite-priests with the functions of judging (v. 17:9), witnessing the King copy the Torah (v. 17:18), teaching the people the Torah (V. 24:8), and making formal addresses to the people (v. 27:9).  It could be interpreted that these were redundantly described priests, which by default are also Levites.  However, Joshua 3:3 has this term describing the Levites who are bearing the ark while crossing the Jordan river, a task for the descendants of Levi that are not from Aaron’s line (see also 2 Chronicles 5:5).  Later, Jehoiada appoints the Levite-priests to offer the burnt offerings “as written in the law of Moses” (2 Chronicles 23:18), so the Levites had to somehow become authorized to offer these sacrifices.  Perhaps the Nazarite vow is the method.

Samuel was a Levite through Levi’s son, Kohath, and his son, Izhar, not Amram (1 Chronicles 6:38).  Amram was Aaron’s father, so Samuel was clearly not of the line of Aaron.  Yet Samuel was qualified to offer up burnt offerings (1 Samuel 7:9).  He was also a judge of Israel (1 Samuel 7:15) and a prophet (1 Samuel 3:20, Acts 13:20).

John the Baptist was also a prophet.  1 Luke 15, describes John: “For he shall be great in the sight of the YHVH and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb.”  Maybe the infilling of the Holy Spirit is related to the Nazarite status.

1 Corinthians 11 discusses the head covering regulations for “praying” and “prophesying”.  Verses leading up to 1 Corinthians 11 include Paul’s instructions to the reader to not offend the Jews, the Greeks, or the assembly of Elohim.  The end of the passage similarly concludes, “But if anyone thinks to be contentious, we do not have such a custom, nor the assemblies of Elohim” (v. 11:16).  So, Paul appears to be talking about assembly matters, rather than private prayer time.  The chapter continues discussing matters when they “come together in the assembly” (v. 18) regarding the order of the Lord’s Supper.

Chapters 12-13 continue with the orderly use of spiritual workings in the assembly and the importance of each of the members of the assembly, returning to the discussion of prophesying in the assembly in v. 14:31.  It seems, then, that the head covering regulation applies to the corporate worship experience, and in particular, the elements of prayer and prophecy.  Since prayer is likened to the burning of incense before YHVH (Luke 1:10-11; Rev. 8:3-4), the Nazarites in the scriptural record are known to be prophets, and the priests were the authorized leaders in the assembly, perhaps a priest or a Nazarite is required to lead a corporate worship service.  If so, the head covering guidelines are likely elements specifically related to the Nazarite vow.

In the Mishnah, section Nazir 4, several cases are presented regarding a woman under the Nazarite vow.  Paragraph 3 specifies that she receive 40 lashes if she deliberately violates the vow.  Paragraph 4 discusses what happens to the animals set aside for the end of the vow should her husband nullify her vow.  Paragraph 5 rules that a man may annul his wife’s vow if she becomes defiled to prevent her from having to shave.  And one Rabbi says he can even annul her vow if she has completed it and is ready to shave in purity because he doesn’t “want a bald wife.” 

I cite these passages to demonstrate that women were undertaking the vow at the time of the writing of the Mishnah.  Furthermore, husbands were known to be upset with the appearance of a shaven wife.  Perhaps the early assemblies made provisions for women to take the vow, but not be shaven before their husbands.  A veil fully covering her hair would apparently suffice, but if she didn’t want to wear the covering, she should be shorn like the men.  It seems by the subsequent discussion in the chapter that some of the men thought they could just cover their heads, as well.  However, Paul instructs the assembly that this is against the order of authority Elohim -> man -> woman.  Women may cover her head, being the glory of her husband.  However, a man should follow the commandment, being the image and glory of Elohim.  He elaborates how woman first came forth from the man and was made for the man.  But so a man does not esteem himself superior to a woman, Paul also points out that the man also comes forth from a woman. 

Paul finishes the head covering discussion by asking the reader to judge if it is proper for the woman to pray uncovered.    I understand “proper” to mean “according to order”, as in following the precepts of Torah.  If a Nazarite is supposed to be shorn, then to not address the command would flatly ignore it.  He then asks, “does not even nature itself teach you that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?” Some people interpret “nature” to lead us to look at appearance of animals, but it isn’t logical since a common biblical animal, the lion, has males with longer “hair” than the females.  Instead, I understand “nature” to refer to our instinct of common sense.  Ezekiel 44:15 says, “But the Levite-priests, the sons of righteousness that kept the charge of my sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from me, they shall come near to me to minister unto me… v. 20 Neither shall they shave their heads nor suffer their locks to grow long; they shall only poll their heads.”  Since the priests in service were not to have long hair, it is reasonable to conclude the men leading the assembly would not have long hair.  I don’t think, though, that Paul’s statement is concerning all men – just men leading the assembly.  For instance, Samson had long hair without shame.  His shame came when his hair was cut.  Likewise, the directive for a woman to cover is specified when she is praying or prophesying corporately.  I interpret this to mean that at other times, she is free to have her head uncovered.

While this last comment is really deserving of its own post, I want to briefly address a verse near the end of the chapters on spiritual and prophetic workings.  1 Corinthians 14:34-35 says, “Let your women keep silence in the assembly, for it is not permitted unto them to speak, but to be subject, as also saith the law.  And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home, for it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church.”  Some use this to point out a contradiction in what Paul wrote three chapters earlier.  However, Paul obviously permits women who are part of the service to speak (as long as their head is covered).  So, this must be an address concerning the rest of the women, and in particular, the women who have questions (“if they will learn anything”) about what is happening in the service, since they should “ask their husbands at home.”  Verse 36 scolds, “What? Came the word of Elohim out from you? Or came it unto you only?”  It seems some men thought they were the sole authority on matters, and women would ask them for explanations during the service, which would be disrupting, disorderly, and undermining the authority of her husband in his own household.  Men are also told to be silent earlier in the same chapter in verse 28.  Habakkuk 2:20 says, “But YHVH is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.”   Finally, Ecclesiastes 3:7 declares there is, “A time to rend, and a time to sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak.”  In this country, there is very little training in protocol, respectful behavior, and self-control, which makes these ideas very foreign to us.  May we strive to implement what Paul was trying to convey to the assembly at Corinth, “Let all things be done decently and in order” (1 Corinthians 14:40).

Sunday, June 18, 2017

The First Day of the Year = The Fourth Day of the Week

The Dead Sea Scrolls calendar has the first day of the year located on the fourth day of the week every year.  This reckoning is consistent throughout all of the scroll fragments published to date.  Several of the fragments give specific dates for when something happens (the following translations are from The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition Volumes 1 and 2 by Martinez and Tigchelaar).  In addition to the Dead Sea Scrolls, clues in the scriptures and extra-biblical references further support a 4th day of the week start for the year.

Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments
4Q252, which is a Commentary on Genesis, lists the days of the week that critical dates in the account of Noah occur on.  For instance, it says, “In the year six hundred of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the first of the week, on its seventeenth, on that day all the springs of the great abyss were split and the sluices of the sky opened and rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights until the twenty-sixth day of the third month, the fifth day of the week.”
In the above calendar clip, I have highlighted the first day of the year and the 4th day of the week with the color blue.  Next, as the fragment specifies, the 17th of the second month falls on the first day of the week (highlighted purple).  The end of the forty days and nights is the 26th day of the third month, which is recorded as the 5th day of the week (highlighted green).  Note that the counting of the forty days includes the 17th of the second month and the 26th of the third month - consistent with the way days are counted in scripture.  If something is supposed to happen on the "third day", then today is counted as day 1, the next day is day 2, and the following day is day 3 - the day that event will happen.  For scriptural counting examples, please visit here.

4Q317, Phases of the Moon, lists the parts of light visible of the moon each day throughout a three-year period.  Fragment 1, column II, lists the data for the 12th month of the first year.  “On the eighth of it its light dominates the day in the center of the high vault fourteen and a half.  And at the arrival of the sun its light is obscured and thus it starts to be visible on the first of the week.  On the ninth of it is visible for one part and so enters the night.”  In the Dead Sea Scrolls calendar, 12th month, the eighth day of the month is the first day of the month.  
In this more detailed calendar clip, the 8th of the 12th month is outlined in a dark box.  This shows that the moon (grey shaded part) says it is covered 14 1/2 parts - which is the most it can be covered ("at the arrival of the sun its light is obscured") - - no moon is visible at night because it sets before sunset.  The next day the moon becomes visible in the evening by 1/14th part before setting.

4Q318, Brontologion, lists constellation information relative to individual days of each month throughout a twelve-month period.  “Tishri. On the 1st and on the 2nd, Scorpio.  On the 3rd and on the 4th, Sagittarius.  On the 5th and on the 6th and on the 7th, Capricorn.”  Throughout the document, the constellations are grouped as 2 days, 2 days, 3 days, or a variation of that, which add up to 7 total days.  This “pattern” is best illustrated in the following color-coded calendar diagram:
In this scroll, this fragment introduces the specific month as "Tishri", and then proceeds to indicate that days 1 and 2 are Scorpio (highlighted green), days 3 and 4 are Sagittarius (highlighted yellow), and days 5, 6 and 7 are Capricorn (highlighted blue).  The rest of the month is highlighted the same way to show the continuing pattern so that no "sign" is carried over into the next week.  Also, the sign grouping aligns with the start and end of each month so that every month begins and ends with the same sign, without any of the sign grouping carrying into the adjacent months.  The pattern completes in a one-year cycle and repeats.  To see an entire year's constellation cycle, click on "Calendar Year 1" near the top of the left margin of this blog.  

4Q320, Calendrical Document A, lists the dates of the full moons for a three-year period because it takes three years to complete the rotations of the moon before it repeats.  “… to become visible from the East and shine in the center of the sky at the base of the vault from evening to morning, on the 4th of the week of the sons of Gamul, in the first month of the first year.  The 5th of Jedaiah to the 29th (day of the first moon cycle) on the 30th (day) of the 1st.  The Sabbath of Hakkoz to the 30th on the 30th of the second."  The dates mentioned are in dark blue, purple and green below, and represent the first day of each lunar cycle (LC).  
This particular scrolls is quite difficult to parse.  For one, the priest listed on Sabbaths is the priest overseeing the following week since the priestly changeover happens on the Sabbath.  This is illustrated by the colored bands staggering on the sabbaths.  Second, the scrolls interject 29 and 30 to indicate the length of the lunar cycle, which is confusing initially because the lunar cycle lengths are so close to the month dates.  However, when you get a couple months into the cycle, the full moon date slips relative to the end of the month and is clearer.  The specific dates listed in the scroll are the full moon dates.

4Q321, Calendrical Document B, lists the dates of the new moon sliver and the full moon similarly noted as 4Q320.  The document continues with listing the dates of the Feasts over a course of six years because it takes six years to complete the rotation of the priests before it repeats.  “The second (year). The first (full moon) on the second of Malakiah, the twentieth of the first and a new moon on the third of Harim, on the seventh of it.  On the fourth of Jeshua, the twentieth of the second, and a new moon on the fifth of Hakkoz on the seventh of it.”  The following two clips illustrate in bold boxes the dates mentioned in the scrolls.  The full moon date is consistent with the data in the previous scroll.  

The section on the feasts continue, “The first year. The first month (starts) with Gamul; on the third of Maaziah falls the Passover; in (the week of) Jedaiah falls the waving of the sheaf. The second (month starts) with Jedaiah; in Seorim falls the second Passover.” Comments in () by Martinez and Tigchelaar.  
Each of the aforementioned priests with their week are highlighted, with the feast mentioned in bold. The dates are not specifically mentioned in this scroll, but are consistent with data presented in other scrolls.

4Q324, Calendrical Document C, lists the entrance of the different courses of priests.  For the fifth year, “After the Sabbath of Jakim is the first of the sixth (month).  On the seventh of it is the entrance of Huppah.  On the fourteenth of it is the entrance of Jeshebeab.”  The priestly courses changed on the Sabbath day: 2 Chronicles 23:8 "So the Levites and all Judah did according to all things that Jehoiada the priest had commanded, and took every man his men that were to come in ON THE SABBATH with them that were to go out ON THE SABBATH; for Jehoiada the priest dismissed not the coucrses.".  Gamul starts the priestly rotation the first week of the first year.  After six years of rotation of the 24 courses of priests, Gamul arrives at the first week again.
This is a diagram of the fifth and sixth months of the fifth year.  Priestly entrance dates are in bold. Really each sabbath should have both the color of the preceding week along with the color of the following week.

4Q325, 4Q326 and 4Q327, Calendrical Documents D and E, lists the priests overseeing the Sabbaths and Feasts and First Fruits offerings, including wheat, wine, oil and wood. “on the twenty-fifth of it the Sabbath of Jedaiah, and his duty includes the festival of the barley on the twenty-sixth of it after Sabbath.  The beginning of the second month on the sixth of it of Jedaiah.  On the second of it the Sabbath of Harim.  On the ninth of it the Sabbath of Seorim.”  These Sabbath entrances, with dates, is illustrated in the calendar clip below:

4Q328 and 4Q329, Calendrical Document F, lists the priests at the head of each of the four quarters of the year over the six-year rotation.  With 24 courses of priests rotating through 52 weeks, each priest will serve two weeks in a year, totaling 48 weeks.  Four of the priests will serve a third week until the new year starts, causing four new priests to start up the second year.  This yearly “slippage” results in all 24 priests eventually leading each quarter.  It is my opinion that the leaders of the quarters remain in service for the entire quarter with the remaining priests rotating through for weekly service.  While this document doesn’t mention specific days of the week, there is consistency of the cycling of the priests with the other documents.

Bible Dates Overlay
The Dead Sea Scrolls Calendar has exactly 52 weeks, so every annual event always occurs on the same day of the week.  In a previous post, I illustrated what happens when one takes the dates provided for various events in the bible and plots them on the Dead Sea Scrolls Calendar.  Interestingly, aside from the book of Esther (which as of yet has no fragment recovered with in the Qumran caches), and Solomon beginning the temple construction, the events never take place on the second or Sabbath days.  Neither of these days are declared “good” in the Genesis 1 creation account.  

The account of Solomon's temple project records that he commenced building on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, which is a Sabbath using a 4th day of the week start for the year.  Some have told me this information is not present in the older and more reliable manuscripts.  However, if it was originally there, there are two possible ways to reconcile this activity occuring on this day. First, if it happened after sundown, it was no longer a Sabbath rest, and not a violation of the Sabbath.  Or, it is possible a violation did take place at the commandment of Yah, similar to the commandment to Abraham to sacrifice Isaac.  The near sacrifice of Isaac was meant as a Messianic prophecy.  This, too, could be a Messianic prophecy suggesting that the third temple of Ezekiel's vision would take place in the Millenial reign by the hand of the "Son of David".

Traveling on the Sabbath
Exodus 16:29 prohibits a man from “going out” of his place on the seventh day.  This can be interpreted as a ban on traveling.  Furthermore, Exodus 20:10 bans working of animals on the Sabbath day.  By reviewing the dates for a few events, the Scrolls Calendar can be tested, and alternate annual start dates can be eliminated so the Sabbath commandment will not be broken.

Genesis 8:4 records that Noah’s ark “rested in the seventh month, on the seventeeth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.  This aligns with the 6th day of the week in the Scrolls Calendar.  If the year began on the 5th day of the week, the ark would come to rest on the Sabbath day.  While some might think this is appropriate since the ark is resting and we are to rest on the Sabbath, there is a problem.  The ark must be traveling for it to come to a rest.  The traveling part would violate the commandment. 

Exodus 12:3 instructs the Children of Israel to select a lamb on the tenth of the first month to be the Passover lamb.  Yeshua, in fulfilment of this instruction, rides a donkey into the city of Jerusalem while the people lay down their palm branches and select him as king.  In the Dead Sea Scrolls calendar, the 10th day of the first month is the 6th day of the week.  It is acceptable, then, for Yeshua to be riding an animal because it is not a Sabbath day.  If the year began on the 5th day of the week, the Sabbath commandment would be violated.

Also occuring on the 10th day of the first month is the traveling of the children of Israel across the Jordan and setting up camp  in Gilgal, requiring both traveling and building a camp (Joshua 4:19).  The Dead Sea Scrolls calendar places this day on the 6th day of the week.  A 5th day start would require the traveling and setting up of camp to occur on the Sabbath.

Exodus 16 describes the events surrounding the giving of Manna.  The Children of Israel arrived at the wilderness of Sin on the fifteenth day of the second month.  Again, on the Scrolls Calendar this is a 6th day of the week.  Since the people are traveling before they arrived, it is appropriate that it not be a Sabbath day of the week.  If the year began on the 5th day, the people and animals would be traveling and setting up camp on a Sabbath day.

Manna Account – A Closer Examination
Upon further examination of the manna account, the timing can be further verified.  The congregation is fussing because they are now without food.  Yah responds to them by explaining that He will provide manna for them to eat for six days, and the sixth day they will get a double portion to hold them over for the seventh day Sabbath.  It can be assumed, then, that manna would begin on the first day of the week so there wouldn’t be confusion counting the six days of gathering manna and resting on the seventh day. 

Exodus 16:6-8 “And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, (event ‘A’) At eve, you shall know that the Lord has brought you out from the land of Egypt.  (Event ‘B’) And in the morning, then you shall see the glory of the Lord, for that he hears your murmurings against the Lord and what are we, that you murmur against us? And Moses said, when the Lord shall give you (event ‘C’) in the evening flesh to eat and (event ‘D’) in the morning bread to the full, for that the Lord heareth your murmurings which you murmur against him; and what are we? Your murmurings are not against us but against the Lord.”  The sequential plan of events was outlined in the preceding verses:
  • A. At eve - Know Yah has brought them out
  • B. In the morning - See the glory of Yah
  • C. In the evening - Eat flesh
  • D. In the morning - Eat manna
Verse 10 “And it came to pass as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.”  Event ‘A’ was possibly fulfilled in the part when Moses had declared that Yah would give them food.  Event ‘B’ just happened as the children saw the glory of Yah in the cloud.  They have not received manna yet.  So far, we have the following timeline:
1.     Children arrive on the 15th of the month and grumble.
2.     That evening: Know Yah brought them out
3.     Next day (16th) in the morning: See glory of Yah.

They just witnessed the glory of Yah in the cloud.  Now they are being told: (verses 11-14) “And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, “I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel.  Speak to them saying, at even you shall eat flesh, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread, and you shall know that I am the Lord your God.  And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.”  Here is the complete timeline:
1.     Children arrive on the 15th of the month and grumble.
2.     That evening: Know Yah brought them out
3.     Next day (16th) in the morning: See glory of Yah.
4.     That evening: Quail came up
5.     Next day (17th) in the morning: Dew lay round followed by manna

And since they should be receiving manna for six days and not on the Sabbath, the first day of manna was likely the first day of the week.  In the scrolls calendar, the 17th of the second month is the first day of the week.

Fellow carlendar researcher, Carl Archuleta, has studied the scriptures regarding the sacrifices required for various days of the year.  There are specifications for daily sacrifices, Sabbath sacrifices, new month sacrifices, and Feast Day sacrifices.  For instance, Number 29:6, which follows the specifications of the sacrifices for the first day of the seventh month, instructs that these offerings are besides the offerings for the (first day of the) month and the daily offerings.  Archuleta points out that it does NOT mention they are besides the Sabbath sacrifices, indicating that the first of the seventh month cannot be on a Sabbath day.  If the year begins on the 3rd day of the week, the third month of every quarter will begin on a Sabbath, requiring both daily and Sabbath sacrifices in addition to the monthly, but this is not specified - only in addition to the daily.  If the year begins on the 5th day of the week, the second month of every quarter will begin on a Sabbath, also requiring both daily and Sabbath sacrifices in addition to the monthly, and again is not specified.  If the year begins on the 1st day of the week, the last day of unleavened bread and its sacrifices would be required with both the daily and Sabbath sacrifices; once more this is not specified.

External witness - 9th of Av
Roger C Young, in his article "Seder Olam and the Sabbaticals Associated with the Two Destructions of Jerusalem Part I", includes a reference in the Seder Olam to the destruction of the first and second temples on the 9th of Av: "A day of rewards attracts rewards and a day of guilt attracts guilt.  You find it said that the destruction of the First Temple was at the end of Sabbath, at the end of a Sabbatical year, when the priests of the family of Yehoiariv was [sic] officiating, on the Ninth of Ab, and the same happened a second time."  http://www.betemunah.org/sederolam.html continues "Both times the Levites were standing on their podium and sang. Which song did they sing? (Ps. 94:23) 'He repaid them for their evil deeds …'"

Young demonstrates that the document is written by authors living near the time of the destruction of the temple, highlighting the weight given to the entry by modern scholars.  In addition, he clarifies that "at the end of the Sabbath" is actually "motza" of the Sabbath, meaning the "going out" of the Sabbath.  A similar use of the verb occurs in Exodus 23:16 describing how the Feast of Ingathering occurs at the "yatza" (different form of the same verb) of the year, referencing the second half of the year.  The "going out" of the Sabbath, then, is the second half of the Sabbath day indicating the timing when the new course of priests come on duty.

In the above clip of the third year of the Dead Sea Scrolls calendar, in the 5th month (Av), on the 9th day of the month, we have Jehoairib coming on duty on the Sabbath day.

Over the course of my years of study of this calendar, I have encountered numerous people who, although they adhere to a 364-day calendar such as that in the Dead Sea Scrolls, they reject the calendar year beginning on the 4th day of the week.  I find this frustrating due to the overwhelming evidence outlined in the aforementioned sources.  Lastly, since the sun, moon and stars were created on the 4th day of the week, and they were created for "signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years," it makes sense to me that those years would be reckoned from that point.  I hope that laying out this information as thoroughly as I was able will foster either a unity in the 4th day calendar start, or a detailed and convincing rebuttal in favor of a different day.  

Thursday, May 25, 2017

A Broken Betrothal and Adultery

In a previous post, I examined the availability of a woman, who has a writ of divorce from her previous husband, for remarriage.  This post examines a similar topic: broken betrothals and the need for a writ of divorce.  I would like to preface this post with acknowledging that, so far, I have found no person that agrees with my conclusion below.  Nevertheless, I believe my conclusion aligns with the biblical definition and application of the betrothal status in scripture. 

In general, Jews claim biblical laws only pertain to Jews.  However, I personally believe that when a person accepts Yeshua as their King, he or she becomes a citizen of His kingdom, which is governed by biblical law.  That citizenship makes the believer subject to the laws of that kingdom, just as anyone who immigrates to our country is subject to the laws of this country, whether or not they know or understand them.  This understanding is why Jews discourage people from converting to Judaism, because once a person converts, Jews believe the convert is responsible to uphold all the Torah.  

Process of Becoming Betrothed
In the bible, before a couple is married, they are betrothed.  Betrothal is when a man asks a woman to marry him, provides an item of value (usually a ring), and she accepts before at least 2-3 witnesses.  The father of the girl may reject the offer of marriage.

The first marriage, the one between Adam and Eve, illustrates that when the woman is brought to her husband, they become one flesh (Genesis 2:24).  Since the husband and wife do not literally  physically fuse together, the “one flesh” joining must signify a unity and bonding of their souls.  This bond is significant and special and a good reason couples should wait for marriage before having a physical relationship.

Following the story of Adam and Eve, several other marriages are recorded, but betrothal details are not provided until Abraham’s servant searches for a bride for Abraham’s son, Isaac.  In the Genesis 24 narrative, Rebekah is given jewelry (24:22), permission to marry is asked of her father and her brother, silver, gold and clothing is given to Rebekah, her brother and her mother, and ultimately Rebekah herself is asked if she will go (24:58).  At this point she is betrothed.  She travels with the servant to go to Isaac.  No wedding service is mentioned -- just that Isaac brought her into his deceased mother’s tent and “took her”, and she became his wife. 

Next is the betrothal story of Isaac's son, Jacob.  Since Jacob had fled penniless from his brother, he arranged to work seven years as a bride price for Rachel.  When the seven years was up, he demanded she be given to him.  In this case, there was a wedding feast thrown before the consummation of the marriage.  The continuing drama and deception after this feast is recounted in Genesis 29.

Jacob’s daughter, Dinah, was either raped or seduced by Shechem (Genesis 34), who subsequently desired to marry her.  Shechem’s and Dinah’s fathers negotiated the wedding terms.  One assumption is that Dinah consented since she was no longer a virgin and therefore not eligible for the traditional marriage process.

Another illustration of betrothal is the Levirate marriage: when a woman’s husband dies childless, she is given to his brother to raise up children for the deceased brother.  Jacob’s son, Judah, had three sons.  The first son married Tamar (Genesis 38).  When that son died, she was given to his second son.  That son also died, resulting in Tamar being given to the third son.  However, he was too young, so she had to live with her father in betrothal status until the boy grew up. 

Legal Status of Betrothal
According to Judaism, the betrothal, called “erusin”, is the stage when the woman is “’forbidden to the rest of the world.’ From this point on, for another man to have relations with her is tantamount to adultery, and to dissolve the betrothal requires a get (writ of divorce)” http://www.chabad.org/parshah/article_cdo/aid/296931/jewish/The-Betrothed.htm .  This stage of the relationship is illustrated in several passages in scripture.

Deuteronomy 22:23 “If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her, then you shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and you shall stone them with stones that they die; the damsel because she cried not, being in the city, and the man because he hath humbled his neighbor’s wife.”  In this case, the betrothed woman’s sentence for being with someone besides her betrothed is the same as if she were married.  The chapter continues for the case of a betrothed woman who is with another man out in the field.  She is given the benefit of the doubt that she screamed for help but no one could hear her.

Deuteronomy 22:28 portrays the case of a woman who is not engaged.  “If a man find a damsel that is a virgin which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her and lie with her and they be found, then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife, because he hath humbled her; he may not put her away all his days.”  Notice she is not penalized with adultery in this case; however, he is required to pay the bride price and can never send her away.

The previous case in verse 28 is for a woman who was forced.  In the case of seduction, the man is still obligated to marry the woman.  Exodus 22:16 “And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.”  The next verse stipulates that the father may refuse to give his daughter to the man, however the man is still obligated to pay the bride price for virgins.

In the story of Tamar above, when Tamar saw that Judah's youngest son was grown and she hadn’t been fetched for him, she devised a plan to disguise herself and instead seduce Judah so she could have a son (I know – scandalous!).  When she was discovered to be pregnant, Judah was going to have her killed for her adultery.  So, even though she wasn’t yet brought to her betrothed, her actions were judged adulterous, the same as someone who is married.

When Yeshua’s mother, Mary, was pregnant, and Joseph wasn't the father, Joseph sought to put her away.  Matthew 1:18 “…When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Spirit.  Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily”.  They were not yet married, but he still needed to formally terminate the relationship, even if privately.

Divorce Process
Biblical divorce has two stages.  Separation, where the woman is sent away by the man or the woman leaves the man, and the actual legal divorce which is only possible by the man giving the writ of divorce.  A woman cannot divorce her husband.  From my previous blog post, here is the literal translation (and commentary) of Mathew 5:31: “Whoever should put away (separate from) his wife (a legal wife), let him give her a certificate of divorce (a legal canceling of the marriage).  But I say to you, whoever should put away (only separate from but not legally divorce) his wife, except for the matter of porneia (another topic), makes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a put away woman (one who is not legally divorced) commits adultery.”  Notice that the instruction is to the man and not the wife.  Also notice that unless the man gives her the writ, she is not free to marry.  If she could issue the writ herself, she would not be bound, and Yeshua’s instruction to the men would be unnecessary. 

Another verse, Mark 10:12 “And if a woman shall put away her husband and be married to another, she commits adultery.”  She is unable to give the divorce.  The verse preceding this, “Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, commits adultery against her.”  One interpretation of committing adultery “against her” (“against him” isn’t used in verse 12) is that he is guilty of violating the law in Exodus 21:10 which permits a man to take a second wife as long as he does not diminish the first wife’s food, clothing and marital visits, which would be diminished if they are separated.  Or, it can be viewed as a rewording of Matthew 5:31 where “commits adultery against her” possibly means causing her to commit adultery because of the refusal to grant the divorce.  Notice the scriptures do not record that a woman can cause her husband to commit adultery.

Luke 16:18 reads like a combination of Matthew and Mark, “Whosoever puts away his wife and marries another, commits adultery; and whosoever marries her that is put away from her husband commits adultery.”  In this case, the language does not say the man commits adultery “against her” – it says he commits adultery.

Romans 7:2 “For the woman which has a husband is bound by the law to her husband so long as he lives; but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.  So then if, while her husband lives, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress; but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress though she be married to another man.”  Unless she receives a writ of divorce, she is considered married and is unable to be with another man until the first husband dies.  1 Corinthians 7:39 echoes this instruction, “The wife is bound by the law as long as her husband lives; but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the Lord.”  Notice, again, the woman is unable to legally free herself from the previous marriage.  The man must provide the writ; otherwise, she is bound to him until his death.

In the case of an abusive husband or other appropriate reason for a woman to leave her husband, unless he gives her a writ of divorce, she is unable to remarry. 1 Corinthians 7:10 “And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from her husband. But and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband; and let not the husband put away his wife.”

Adultery in America
American law often does not reflect biblical law.  Gay marriage is a current example of such discrepancies.  Two men can have a state sanctioned marriage, but it is not recognized by God.  Similarly, two people can have a state sanctioned divorce, but not be divorced in the sight of God.  Illinois law permits a woman to divorce a man.  And if the man refuses to sign any paperwork or show up in court, she may file a default divorce against him.  They will be legally divorced in Illinois, and Illinois will permit her to remarry.  However, they will not be legally divorced in heaven.  In the sight of God, if that woman remarries, she will be an adulteress, and her new husband will be an adulterer. 
The same is true for broken engagements.  Many argue that a modern engagement and a biblical betrothal are different from each other.  However, both have the ring, the proposal, the acceptance, and the public acknowledgement.  They are both verbal contracts with a promise to marry and thereby fulfil the biblical pattern already established above.  Verbal contracts are binding.  If someone makes an offer to buy a house, pays money down on the house, and the offer and money are accepted by the seller, it is a legal, binding contract if there are witnesses.  If the seller decides at some point that he doesn’t want to sell the house or wants to accept a better offer, the original buyer can sue the seller to perform the verbal contract.  Note, all contracts such as this must have some amount of money or value transferred, such as $1.  So a valid contract to marry could be made with a single dollar bill as long as it is witnessed.

Until only recently there used to be Breach of Promise Laws, also called Breach of Contract to Marry Laws and Heart Balm Laws.   These laws did not exist in Roman government, but later arose out of Judeo-Christian societies when the ecclesiastical system got involved in the courts.  Typically, such legal disputes were limited to questions concerning ring ownership and investments in expenses pertaining to the wedding depending on how close to the ceremony such a break occurred.  Occasionally damages were awarded due to public embarrassment.  Since we now live in a disposable society where commitments are taken lightly and often broken, most countries have removed these laws over the last fifty years.

Regardless of what is permitted in the civil courts, the orthodox churches and synagogues continue to vet the betrothed and divorced to determine the eligibility of marriage.  From what I have researched, it seems that the Catholic church does not consider a previous betrothal/engagement legally binding preventing marriage to someone else, but does have significant limitations in the event of a previous divorce.  Orthodox Judaism, on the contrary, does recognize the legal status of a previous betrothal/engagement and requires a divorce before the formerly betrothed members may move on to new relationships, but is much more permissible towards remarriage if there was a prior divorce.

Why does this study matter?  For one, we are supposed to repent, for the kingdom is near.  1 Cor 6:9 “Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God?  Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers … shall inherit the kingdom of God.”  Perhaps Matthew 16:19 speaks of fixing such relationships by binding and loosing on earth so it will be done in heaven.  For some, corrections will need to be made to make sure adultery isn’t an issue. 
Also, since Israel will be repurchased as a bride in the kingdom, it helps to know the specifics of what betrothal means.  Hosea 2:19 “And I will betroth you unto me [in the Age]; yea, I will betroth you unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in lovingkindness, and in mercies.  I will even betroth you unto me in faithfulness, and you shall know the LORD.”  There is another command concerning the man who has betrothed a woman.  “And what man is there that has betrothed a wife and has not taken her?  Let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in battle, and another man take her.”  We are the betrothed, and our Man is returning to his bride!  Be spotless.

It is my opinion that if a woman was a believer prior to or during her broken engagement with no divorce, and she subsequently married someone else (legally married only on earth, not in heaven since she is still betrothed), there is an issue of adultery.  If she was not a believer prior to or during the broken engagement with no divorce, only man’s laws pertain to her – no adultery.  If a woman discovers she is in an adulterous relationship due to a previously broken but not divorced engagement, she can either remove herself from the current relationship (heart-wrenching if there are children involved) and return to the former one if possible or wait in case it eventually become possible, or she can obtain a writ for the original relationship legally terminating it, and thereby making the current relationship legitimate in heaven.  The first option is hard.  Mark 10 records Yeshua teaching that we should not ideally seek divorce because “what God has joined together, let not man put asunder”.  A woman in this situation will have to assess if the first relationship was Yah’s will.  If it was, it should not be divided.  And 1 Corinthians 7:10 says, “And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from her husband. But and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband; and let not the husband put away his wife.”  This passage speaks of a woman waiting to be reconciled to her husband.  This likely pertains to the betrothed, as well, difficult as it may be.  However, Yah doesn’t excuse us just because a situation is hard.  And while everyone around may see the legal fix as treacherous, we need to seek Him in prayer and supplication and walk with our eyes fixed on him as we navigate the waves.

Saturday, February 18, 2017

Red Heifer Sacrifice

Numbers 19: 13'Anyone who touches a corpse, the body of a man who has died, and does not purify himself, defiles the tabernacle of the LORD; and that person shall be cut off from Israel because the water for impurity was not sprinkled on him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is still on him.    

We have death all around us.  Cemeteries infest the hills and prairies.  Abortions and miscarriages are too numerous to count.  Murders and their network news portrayal occur everywhere daily.  Death, the consequence to the first sin, is ever present, contaminating us.  In Numbers 19, however, we are given a remedy to cleanse us from this defilement.  This remedy calls for a sacrifice of a red heifer, which has not been possible for approximately 2000 years, however the sacrifice of Christ still cleanses us today.  The following verse-by-verse account (NASB version, with the Hebrew name, Yeshua used instead of the English Jesus) shows how perfectly his sacrifice completed every detail.  [My commentary is in brackets.]

Numbers 19:  2"This is the statute of the law which the LORD has commanded, saying, 'Speak to the sons of Israel that they bring you an unblemished red heifer in which is no defect and on which a yoke has never been placed.     [Yoke represents slavery, blemish represents sin.  Yeshua was without sin.  We are enslaved to sin.]
  • Luke 23:13 Pilate called together the chief priests, the rulers and the people, and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was inciting the people to rebellion.  I have examined him in your presence and have found no basis for your charges against him.  Neither has Herod, for he sent him back to us;”
  • Hebrews 4: 14Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Yeshua the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. 15For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin. 
  • Hebrews 9:  13For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, 14how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
  • 2 Corinthians 5:   21He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
3'You shall give it to Eleazar the priest, and it shall be brought outside the camp and be slaughtered in his presence.  [The priests brought him out of the city gates to be crucified.]
  • Mark 15:    1Early in the morning the chief priests with the elders and scribes and the whole Council, immediately held a consultation; and binding Yeshua, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate. …    22Then they brought Him to the place Golgotha, which is translated, Place of a Skull. 
  • Luke 23:     26When they led Him away, they seized a man, Simon of Cyrene, coming in from the country, and placed on him the cross to carry behind Yeshua. … 33When they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left. 
  • Hebrews 13:    11For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside the camp.  12Therefore Yeshua also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate.
4'Next Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle some of its blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times.  [He bled from seven parts of His body].
Nailed 2 Hands + 2 Feet::
  • Acts 2:    22"Men of Israel, listen to these words: Yeshua the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know--  23this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death.
  • Colossians 2:    13When you were dead in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions,   14having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us, which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross.
  • Luke 24:    39"See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; touch Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have."    40And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet.
  • Psalm 22:          16For dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has encompassed me; They pierced my hands and my feet.
Scourged Back: 
  • Matthew 27:    26Then he released Barabbas for them; but after having Yeshua scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.
  • Mark 15:    15Wishing to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having Yeshua scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.
  • Isaiah 53: 5b     The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed.
Beat & Pierced Head: 
  • Matthew 27: 29And after twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and they knelt down before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" 30They spat on Him, and took the reed and began to beat Him on the head.
  • Mark 15: 17They dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; 18and they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews!" 19They kept beating His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and bowing before Him.
  • Genesis 22:13: Then Abraham raised his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram and offered him up for a burnt offering in the place of his son.
Pierced Side:
  • John 19:    34But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
  • Isaiah 53: 5a     5But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities;
  • Zechariah 12:    10"I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.
5'Then the heifer shall be burned in his sight; its hide and its flesh and its blood, with its refuse, shall be burned.   [An uneaten sacrifice had to be burned on the 3rd day (Lev. 7:17, Lev. 19:6 – He descended into fiery Hell.]
  • Psalm 16:         10For You will not abandon my soul to Sheol; Nor will You allow Your Holy One to undergo decay.
  • 1 Samuel 2:       6"The LORD kills and makes alive; He brings down to Sheol and raises up.
  • 1 Peter 3:18  For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; in which also He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison, who once were disobedient, when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water.
  • Revelation 1:    17When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man And He placed His right hand on me, saying, "Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last,    18and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.
6'The priest shall take cedar wood and hyssop and scarlet material and cast it into the midst of the burning heifer.   [Wood, hyssop and scarlet were used in the crucifixion.]

  • Galatians 3:    13Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us--for it is written, "CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO HANGS ON A TREE"—
  • Philippians 2:    8Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.
  • Mark 15:    36Someone ran and filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a reed, and gave Him a drink, saying, "Let us see whether Elijah will come to take Him down."
  • John 19:    29A jar full of sour wine was standing there; so they put a sponge full of the sour wine upon a branch of hyssop and brought it up to His mouth.
Scarlet Material:
  • Matthew 27: 27Then the soldiers of the governor took Yeshua into the Praetorium and gathered the whole Roman cohort around Him.  28They stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him.
  • Luke 23:    11And Herod with his soldiers, after treating Him with contempt and mocking Him, dressed Him in a gorgeous robe and sent Him back to Pilate. 
7'The priest shall then wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and afterward come into the camp, but the priest shall be unclean until evening.  [The previously unbelieving priest, Nicodemus, believed that evening that He was the Son of God.  Notice he goes into the camp (one of the Jews).]
  • John 3:    1Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews;       9Nicodemus said to Him, "How can these things be?"
  • John 19:    39Nicodemus, who had first come to Him by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds weight.   40So they took the body of Yeshua and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.
8'The one who burns it shall also wash his clothes in water and bathe his body in water, and shall be unclean until evening.  [The previously unbelieving centurion believed that evening that He was the Son of God. Notice he doesn’t go into the camp (not a Jew).]
  • Matthew 27: 54Now the centurion, and those who were with him keeping guard over Yeshua, when they saw the earthquake and the things that were happening, became very frightened and said, "Truly this was the Son of God!" 
  • Luke 23:    47Now when the centurion saw what had happened, he began praising God, saying, "Certainly this man was innocent."
9'Now a man who is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer and deposit them outside the camp in a clean place, and the congregation of the sons of Israel shall keep it as water to remove impurity; it is purification from sin.  10'The one who gathers the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; … [Man who is already clean is a believer.]
  • Matthew 27: 57When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Yeshua.    58This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Yeshua. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him.    59And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,   60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the entrance of the tomb and went away.
  • Mark 15:    43Joseph of Arimathea came, a prominent member of the Council, who himself was waiting for the kingdom of God; and he gathered up courage and went in before Pilate, and asked for the body of Yeshua.    44Pilate wondered if He was dead by this time, and summoning the centurion, he questioned him as to whether He was already dead.    45And ascertaining this from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph.    46Joseph bought a linen cloth, took Him down, wrapped Him in the linen cloth and laid Him in a tomb which had been hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb. 
  • Luke 23:    50And a man named Joseph, who was a member of the Council, a good and righteous man    51(he had not consented to their plan and action), a man from Arimathea, a city of the Jews, who was waiting for the kingdom of God;    52this man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Yeshua.   53And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid Him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one had ever lain.
… and it shall be a perpetual statute to the sons of Israel and to the alien who sojourns among them.  [It is forever (perpetual) for those who have circumcised hearts and have Yeshua as their Passover sacrifice.]
  • Exodus 12:48-49  But if a stranger sojourns with you, and celebrates the Passover to THE LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near to celebrate it; and he shall be like a native of the land.   The same law shall apply to the native as to the stranger who sojourns among you.
11'The one who touches the corpse of any person shall be unclean for seven days. 12'That one shall purify himself from uncleanness with the water on the third day and on the seventh day, and then he will be clean; but if he does not purify himself on the third day and on the seventh day, he will not be clean.   [One is purified by faith by looking to the third day resurrection of Christ and to the seventh day return of Christ.  Furthermore, in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Passover is on the third day and the Sabbath is on the Seventh day.  ]
  • Genesis 22:4-5: “On the third day Abraham raised his eyes and saw the place from a distance.  Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go over there; and we will worship and return to you.”
  • Hosea 6:2: “He will revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day, that we may live before Him.
  • Acts 10:  40"God raised Him up on the third day and granted that He become visible, 41not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen beforehand by God, that is, to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.
  • 1 Corinthians 15:    4and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
  • Romans 6:    3Or do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Yeshua have been baptized into His death?  4Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.  5For if we have become united with Him in the likeness of His death, certainly we shall also be in the likeness of His resurrection, 6knowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him, in order that our body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin; 7for he who has died is freed from sin.
  • Exodus 31:    16'So the sons of Israel shall observe the Sabbath, to celebrate the Sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant.'    17"It is a sign between Me and the sons of Israel forever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, but on the seventh day He ceased from labor, and was refreshed."
  • Hebrews 4:    9So there remains a Sabbath rest for the people of God.    10For the one who has entered His rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from His.
  • 1 Thessalonians 4:   16For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.    17Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord.
  • Revelation 20:    4Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Yeshua and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.    5The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were completed. This is the first resurrection.  6Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years.
  • Romans 4:   16For this reason it is by faith, in order that it may be in accordance with grace, so that the promise will be guaranteed to all the descendants, not only to those who are of the Law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all,   17(as it is written, "A FATHER OF MANY NATIONS HAVE I MADE YOU") in the presence of Him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead and calls into being that which does not exist.   18In hope against hope he believed, so that he might become a father of many nations according to that which had been spoken, "SO SHALL YOUR DESCENDANTS BE."
  • Galatians 3:    7Therefore, be sure that it is those who are of faith who are sons of Abraham.  8The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "ALL THE NATIONS WILL BE BLESSED IN YOU."    9So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer.
13'Anyone who touches a corpse, the body of a man who has died, and does not purify himself, defiles the tabernacle of the LORD; and that person shall be cut off from Israel Because the water for impurity was not sprinkled on him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is still on him.   [See commentary and scripture for verse 30 below.]

14'This is the law when a man dies in a tent: everyone who comes into the tent and everyone who is in the tent shall be unclean for seven days.   [This would be the equivalent of going to a wake or funeral.  This uncleanness only lasts for seven days.]

15'Every open vessel, which has no covering tied down on it, shall be unclean.    [We are open vessels, and Christ is our covering.]
  • 1 Thessalonians 4:3-5 For this is the will of God, your sanctification; that is, that you abstain from sexual immorality; that each of you know how to possess his own vessel in sanctification and honor, not in lustful passion, like the Gentiles who do not know God;
  • Genesis 8:13b Then Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and behold, the surface of the ground was dried up.  [God covered Noah in the open vessel to shield him from death.]
  • Exodus 26:14 You shall make a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red and a covering of porpoise skins above.  [The tabernacle, a foreshadow of our bodies filled with the Holy Spirit, had a covering.]
  • Ruth 3:9 He said, “Who are you?” and she answered, “I am Ruth your maid.  So spread your covering over your maid, for you are a [kinsman redeemer].” 
  • Psalm 105:39 He spread a cloud for a covering, and fire to illumine by night.  [He covered them with a cloud in the wilderness.]
16'Also, anyone who in the open field touches one who has been slain with a sword or who has died naturally, or a human bone or a grave, shall be unclean for seven days.  [Again, this uncleanness only lasts for seven days.]

17'Then for the unclean person they shall take some of the ashes of the burnt purification from sin and flowing water shall be added to them in a vessel.
  • Jeremiah 2:13: “My people have committed two sins:  They have forsaken me, the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water.”
  • John 19:    34But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
  • John 7:    38”He who believes in Me, as the Scripture said, ‘From his innermost being will flow rivers of living water.”.
18'A clean person shall take hyssop and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it on the tent and on all the furnishings and on the persons who were there, and on the one who touched the bone or the one slain or the one dying naturally or the grave.   19'Then the clean person shall sprinkle on the unclean on the third day and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him from uncleanness, and he shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and shall be clean by evening.  [The water is sprinkled by preaching the gospel; by making disciples of Yeshua.]
  • Matthew 28:    18And Yeshua came up and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.    19"Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."
  • Mark 13:    10" The gospel must first be preached to all the nations.
  • Ephesians 2:    18for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 19So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God's household,
  • Acts 4:   33And with great power the apostles were giving testimony to the resurrection of the Lord Yeshua, and abundant grace was upon them all.
20'But the man who is unclean and does not purify himself from uncleanness, that person shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he has defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water for impurity has not been sprinkled on him, he is unclean.  [Without Christ, we cannot be clean, and we cannot enter into God’s presence.]
  • Matthew 22:    12and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here without wedding clothes?' And the man was speechless.    13"Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, and throw him into the outer darkness; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'
  • 2 Chronicles 23:    19He stationed the gatekeepers of the house of the LORD, so that no one would enter who was in any way unclean.
  • Nehemiah 7:    64These searched among their ancestral registration, but it could not be located; therefore they were considered unclean and excluded from the priesthood.
  • John 14:6 Yeshua said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me.”
21'So it shall be a perpetual statute for them. And he who sprinkles the water for impurity shall wash his clothes, and he who touches the water for impurity shall be unclean until evening. [At evening, they are clean.]
  • Ezekiel 36:     25"Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.
  • Hebrews 10:    21and since we have a great priest over the house of God,    22let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
  • 1 Peter 1:1: “Peter, an apostle of Yeshua Christ, to those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, but the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Yeshua Christ and be sprinkled with his blood:  May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure.”
22'Furthermore, anything that the unclean person touches shall be unclean; and the person who touches it shall be unclean until evening.'"  [Uncleanness is contagious.]
  • Haggai 2:    13Then Haggai said, "If one who is unclean from a corpse touches any of these, will the latter become unclean?" And the priests answered, "It will become unclean."   14Then Haggai said, " 'So is this people. And so is this nation before Me,' declares THE LORD, 'and so is every work of their hands; and what they offer there is unclean.
  • Isaiah 64:          6For all of us have become like one who is unclean, And all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment; And all of us wither like a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.
  • Jeremiah 13:     27"As for your adulteries and your lustful neighings, The lewdness of your prostitution On the hills in the field, I have seen your abominations Woe to you, O Jerusalem! How long will you remain unclean?"
What then shall we do? 
  • John 6:29  Yeshua answered and said to them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in Him whom He has sent.”
  • John 12:44 The Yeshua cried out and said, “He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me.
  • Hebrews 10:1 “For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near.  Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshippers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins?  But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year. … 9 then [Yeshua] said, ‘Behold, I have come to do your will.’ He takes away the first in order to establish the second.  By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Yeshua Christ once for all.”
  • Isaiah 43:25: “I, even I, am the one who wipes out your transgressions for My own sake, and I will not remember your sins.”
  • Jeremiah 50:20: “’In those days and at that time,’ declares the LORD, ‘search will be made for the iniquity of Israel, but there will be none; and for the sins of Judah, but they will not be found; for I will pardon those whom I leave as a remnant.’”