In ancient Israel, YHVH established an hierarchy of authoritative order. I titled this “The Authority of Priests and Kings”, not “The Authority of Kings and Priests”, because initially Israel only had priests. If Israel hadn’t lusted to be like her neighbors, that is all that would have been necessary, since YHVH Himself was her King.
The priests and Levites were anointed into these positions by YHVH through the hands of Moses, subsequently Aaron, and then those he anointed. YHVH established WHO would be the priests (Aaron, his sons, and in my opinion, those under the Nazarite vow – see here), WHO would assist the priests (the Levites), and WHO would participate in the communal aspects of the service (those of the assembly who were clean). These divisions were expected to be respected and obeyed, otherwise people could fall sick such as Miriam becoming leprous in Miriam and Aaron’s words against Moses. They could even die, such as Korach and his rebellion against the priesthood, or the fate of the people who would dare to ascend the mountain.
This authority was not upheld or revoked conditional of the level of the priests’ righteousness. Aaron was overseeing things when the golden calf incident occurred, but YHVH did not remove his priesthood. People were still charged to proceed according to the established order. In the days of Eli and his sons, even though the public was well aware of and oppressed by the abuse of authority of the priesthood, the rights and duties of the priesthood continued until YHVH Himself cleaned up the situation by killing Eli and his sons and establishing a new family line of the sons of Aaron in their stead. Of course, that didn’t prevent corruption from taking root again. Wickedness in the priesthood grew until YHVH revealed to Ezekiel that the elders of Israel were worshipping images of idols on the walls of the temple court, and the priests had turned their backs to the altar in the holy place so they could instead worship the sun. The solution, though, was not for unauthorized people who thought they could do a better job to step in and create their own priesthood. The solution was for YHVH to clean house by exiling Israel.
When Israel returned, Ezra sent for the Levites and separated out the priests to reestablish the altar. The priesthood continued, and once again it fell into corruption. It was certainly wicked by the time Yeshua stepped into his ministry. However, Yeshua and his family followed the established system when pilgrimaging for the feasts and when attending the synagogues. And when He healed people, he sent them to show themselves to the priests, which was necessary according to the Torah. The High Priest during Yeshua's earthly ministry even prophesied because of his office as High Priest, not because of his righteousness. After Yeshua ascended, the twelve Apostles and Paul still continued to operate according to the authority of the established priesthood in sacrifices, vows, feasts, and synagogue attendance on the Sabbath. The new believers did not stop attending Sabbath services in the synagogues to meet as believers; they gathered as believers at a different time and continued to meet in the synagogues according to the established order.
When Israel grew discontent without a human king on the throne, YHVH gave her what she deserved. Saul. YHVH appointed and anointed Saul as king through an anointing by the hands of Samuel. When Saul failed in his character, YHVH had Samuel anoint another man, David, as king. However, Saul was still on the throne. David recognized YHVH’s anointing on Saul, and he understood that YHVH put him there and YHVH would be the one to remove him. David had the opportunity to kill the currently reigning king on multiple occasions but didn’t dare touch YHVH’s anointed. This was prophetic of how Yeshua, Son of David, would be anointed as king while the reigning king continued to oppress the people and abuse his authority. As an anointed king, Yeshua could have overthrown the system, but instead he submitted to it. Unto death. Had he divided the kingdom, as was done later, it would have only led to civil war.
YHVH’s people are always instructed to obey the ruling hierarchy of man that YHVH established, as long as the authority’s command does not violate YHVH’s law. Peter exhorts us to “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto governors…” We are similarly told to submit wives to husbands, slaves to masters, younger to elder, etc. We don’t have to approve of their decisions, or like the one(s) in authority over us. Our obedience does not depend on the righteousness of that person, either. “Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.” No man holds any station without YHVH’s appointment.
There are times to disobey authority, such as the midwives rejecting Pharoah’s command to kill the infants, or the men of the exile refusing to bow to Nebuchadnezzar’s image of gold. But even in these cases, aside from the single command that the authority gave against YHVH’s law, the people obeyed their authority in other issues. What does this have to do with the Dead Sea Scrolls and its calendar? Stay tuned to find out!